Put and call option in share market
The buyer has the right to sell the stock at the strike price. The writer receives a premium from the buyer. If the buyer exercises his option, the writer will buy the stock at the strike price. If the buyer does not exercise his option, the writer's profit is the premium.
A put option is said to have intrinsic value when the underlying instrument has a spot price S below the option's strike price K. Upon exercise, a put option is valued at K-S if it is " in-the-money ", otherwise its value is zero. Prior to exercise, an option has time value apart from its intrinsic value. The following factors reduce the time value of a put option: Option pricing is a central problem of financial mathematics. Trading options involves a constant monitoring of the option value, which is affected by changes in the base asset price, volatility and time decay.
Moreover, the dependence of the put option value to those factors is not linear — which makes the analysis even more complex. The graphs clearly shows the non-linear dependence of the option value to the base asset price. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Energy derivative Freight derivative Inflation derivative Property derivative Weather derivative. Retrieved from " https: Articles needing additional references from November All articles needing additional references. Views Read Edit View history. In practical trading world, is all trades on Options done on premiums?
IF latter is possible how do we do it in real trading world. Yes, its all a play on premiums, while some prefer to close it before expiry others prefer to hold to expiry.
This depends on your strategy. If you decide to let it expire, then you just let it be as it is…and the exchange will work on the settlement for you.
I know its not that straight forward, what is the trend you have observed in your experience. No, options are non linear instruments and have multiple forces option Greeks acting upon them. So increase in calls does not mean Puts also have to increase. I have seen today on 28th Oct , both call and put options premiums are going up.
There is a difference between exercising and square off. You can square off anytime you wish…. What would be if I exit position now. In the mid of the month m I right. So can I do it? What is meaning of exercise.? Yes, EU Options are structured differently. However, in India all options are American, which can be exercised only on the day of expiry.
How to trade the Nifty on intraday basis. How to square the Nifty call option on Intraday Basis I f one is trading the Nifty on a intraday basis how is the postion squared off?
Do yoiu have to keep a track of the premium as well as the Nifty Index? As Nifty does not have a window to buy or sell how does the Call or Put Option screen look like? A example if on a intraday basis the Nifty moves up by 10 points how does this get captured less brokerage and transaction charges when trading the Nifty Call Option ,for example in the first step on intraday basis the Nifty Call Option is brought then in the next step on the same trading day this position is squared off ,pl explain on intraday basis.
You can trade it based on your view. If you feel bullish, buy the call option …if you fee bearish, buy the put option. You can square it off intraday, no need to hold till expiry.
Yes, you need to track the premiums to identify the profitability. Check the brokerage calculator to figure out the profitability — https: Hi Karthik How come large OI in a call at a particular strike price indicates resistance while it should mean that traders are expecting that price to cross thats why they are buying that call strike….? In option selling, if I choose to wait till expiry, I guess, I shall be saving brokerage and other charges of second leg. So, which one is better, to square off beforehand or wait till expiry, if there is no risk of incurring loss?
It is advisable to square off ITM options for reasons stated here — http: If you have sold and option or holding on to an option which is OTM, then you can let just expire without worrying about Sq off on expiry.
Dear sir I thank you and your team members for educating the public in stock trading. IT seems that for the same scrip at the same strike on the same day CE seller and PE seller are paying different margin amount.
Is it due to difference in premium received or in other words due to moneyness of the option? You are basically referring to the margins for ATM options. They are very similar with very little difference I guess. Hey Karthik, small query to clear my confusion btn square off and exercising an option , as I understand I can square off anytime as per my profitability or loss but suppose have shorted the strangle and then though I am into profit but I can see that due to OTM call n put write , liquidity got reduced resulting I hesitate to square off and I allow it to exercise on the day of expiry then in that case will I get get entire profit full premium of call n put or still there will be spread impact on my profit?
Also is there any extra charge I have to pay if I allow it to get squared off automatically 3. If you have shorted, then you need to hold till expiry to get the full premium. When you hold the written option to expiry, its not referred to as exercising the option.
Only buyers of an option can exercise an option, as they have the right. You can square off the written option anytime before the expiry, but you will not get the full premium. There are no additional charges that you pay if you hold the sold option to expiry. Thanks for reply …… one more small doubt …. If yes what premium they will square off? Now what happens here B1 just transfers his position to another person, say B2 who is interested to take position from B1.
Once B2 will take position, B1 will no longer the participant of the game. B2 can hold it till expiry or can transfer his position to B3 before expiry. If you are long, then Sq off means you are selling your long position.
Likewise, if you are short, sq off means you are closing by means of buying back. Expiry has nothing to do with this. Hello sir, I want to know in which indexes weekly options contract are traded and in which nse is going to start? What will be The charges lavied for Option call order execution at a time i. Brokerage — 40 STT total — 18 Total txn charge — Sir where can we find historical call and put data for contracts that has already expired, say for the past one year?
You will have to get it from Bhavcopy — https: Karthik, If suppose I have bought one lot 75 of Nifty CE premium of 80 and now its premium at Now If I square off my position I will get including profit. It has been mentioned time and again the Option contracts have to be held until expiry following European Call format. Hamish, technically you can hold the contract until expiry.
But at the same time, you can choose to sell it before expiry, anytime after you initiate the position. Do note — If you sell options, then you will receive the full premium only if you hold it to expiry this is assuming the option you have written turns out to be a worthless option meaning the premium goes to 0. A follow up question: No the fact that the settlement for intrinsic value happens only on expiry day, makes it European.
If you can settle it anytime during the series, then it becomes American. Thanks karthik sir and zerodha team for all the efforts ur taking… I m little confused about option selling, for eg; if I sell option and it turns to be worthless than i should wait till expiry for premium right…. Devrat, as a seller of the option, you should look for situations where the option will turn worthless. When the option turns worthless, you get to keep the entire premium. The option turns worthless only close to expiry and not before that.
This is because the option will always have some amount of time value associated with it. Once we buy we become seller the moment we sell… Seller is obligated to hold until expiry. Here in the second case Sell whether we have to pay margin for it? First, we have to pay the premium buy and secondly, we have to pay margin for same trade!!. Little confusing kindly clarify me. Why is there difference in close price and last price in a snapshot of quote?
The last price at which the instrument traded should be equal to close price? Check this — https: How to decide whether to buy call option or sell a put option as both are for bullish , similarly sell a call option or buy a put option as both are for bearish. I know the point of unlimited profit and limited profit, but why would anybody want to sell a put option as it has limited reward i.
Suppose we are selling put option, the premium went from Rs. Please explain with example. If the volatility of the stock has increased, then so would the premiums. In such situations, selling the option would be a better deal than buying the option. Thanks Karthik for reply, but i am still not clear with point number 1. I am not able to make out the difference between buying the call option or selling the put. Could you please share an example?
Raj, increase in volatility increases the premium of options, therefore making the premiums quite expensive. In case, you feel the option is expensive to buy, then you can take the opposite position by selling it and pocketing the premium.
What happens if there is a loss in the options premium at the end of the trading day? And should I hold the options contract in normal, as I expect the market to go down and earn profits till the contract expires? There is no mark to market like in Futures in options. Have explained this in detail, request you to read through the chapters. It should show the premium i require to deposit.
There is no margin when you buy either calls or puts. When you buy options, you need to pay only the premium. You need a margin only when you sell options. Karthik Sir, I had a doubt regarding Expiry. But in case of Indexes are the following statements true: Nifty or Banknifty futures , they both have a monthly expiry just like stock futures. Nifty Options also have monthly expiry. Only Bank Nifty Options have weekly expiry. Please find below the pay off diagrams for the four different option variants — Arranging the Payoff diagrams in the above fashion helps us understand a few things better.
Let me list them for you — Let us start from the left side — if you notice we have stacked the pay off diagram of Call Option buy and Call option sell one below the other. If you look at the payoff diagram carefully, they both look like a mirror image.
The mirror image of the payoff emphasis the fact that the risk-reward characteristics of an option buyer and seller are opposite. The maximum loss of the call option buyer is the maximum profit of the call option seller. Likewise the call option buyer has unlimited profit potential, mirroring this the call option seller has maximum loss potential We have placed the payoff of Call Option buy and Put Option sell next to each other.
This is to emphasize that both these option variants make money only when the market is expected to go higher. In other words, do not buy a call option or do not sell a put option when you sense there is a chance for the markets to go down. You will not make money doing so, or in other words you will certainly lose money in such circumstances. Of course there is an angle of volatility here which we have not discussed yet; we will discuss the same going forward.
Clearly the pay off diagrams looks like the mirror image of one another. The mirror image of the payoff emphasizes the fact that the maximum loss of the put option buyer is the maximum profit of the put option seller. Likewise the put option buyer has unlimited profit potential, mirroring this the put option seller has maximum loss potential Further, here is a table where the option positions are summarized.
However he enjoys an unlimited profit potential 7. May 6, at 2: May 6, at 5: May 6, at May 7, at 4: September 5, at 5: September 6, at February 25, at 6: May 8, at 6: May 8, at 9: May 11, at 5: May 8, at May 9, at 5: May 11, at 6: May 12, at 5: May 25, at 1: May 26, at 4: June 28, at June 29, at 4: July 10, at 9: July 12, at 4: July 13, at 7: July 14, at 5: July 15, at 5: July 14, at September 28, at 8: September 28, at July 15, at 6: July 16, at 6: July 16, at 4: July 17, at 6: July 19, at 3: August 27, at 5: August 28, at 5: August 28, at 1: August 29, at 6: August 29, at 8: Purchasing options can give you a hedge against losses, and in that sense, they can be used conservatively.
But there are many options strategies that amount to little more than gambling and can increase your risk to a frightening degree.
Remember, when a call is exercised, stock must be delivered by the seller of the call. If a strong market advance or a major announcement by the issuer has driven the share price up sharply, your losses could be enormous. As indicated, many option strategies involve great complexity and risk. For this reason, not all options strategies will be suitable for all investors.